Technique in painting refers to the features of applying paint on a canvas and the associated visual and optical effects. Techniques can be both traditional – watercolor technique, acrylic painting technique, etc., and author’s – the artist’s painting technique, and the painting technique is also called a set of techniques and drawing methods – layer-by-layer oil painting technique, brushstroke painting technique and others.
Throughout the history of painting, a lot of drawing techniques have appeared, and with the advent of new technologies and materials for creativity, their number increases exponentially. Border techniques, mixed painting techniques appeared, traditional features of working with paint changed for the sake of time. Let’s take a look at some of the basic painting techniques.
1) Glaze Technique.
This is a technique of painting with a thin layer of paint directly on the base or on a dried layer of paint. It is characteristic only for transparent paints – oils, watercolors, sometimes acrylics. The main quality of glazing is transparency. A layer of glaze applied over the previous layer of paint glazes the surface of the picture, as it were, giving special expressiveness and depth to the layers of paint lying under the glaze.
In combination with dense opaque layers of paint in an oil painting, glazing creates the illusion of depth and transparency, thanks to which a three-dimensional painting appears.
2) Smear Painting Technique.
Among the painting techniques, smear stands out especially. This is a way of painting when paint is mixed on a palette and applied to the canvas in separate strokes – each stroke in its place. Thus, the volume and shape in painting are sculpted with strokes of the desired color, tone, size superimposed on the canvas. Textured painting, showing many strokes of different quality and relief, is viewed from a distance, thus individual strokes of paint merge into a single image and give the picture realism, liveliness, dynamism. The smear technique of painting teaches the artist to precisely mix the desired shades and put them in the right place, which is why it is used most often in teaching artists.
3) A Combination Of Painting Techniques.
To express the author’s idea in painting, most often, artists use several techniques at the same time. Alternating glazing with corpus, covering writing, and brushstroke technique with flat spots, painting masters achieve unusual optical effects. At the same time, easel painting retains its originality and expressiveness. She does not just copy nature, but is an alternative reality, artistic fantasy, a version of the artist’s world being, she is a work of art created by the artist, painting, as a material expression of an idea.
The contrast of techniques helps to focus the viewer’s attention on the most important thing, helps in building a composition and brings variety to the set of artistic techniques of the painter.
4) Impressionist Painting Technique.
Unlike the technique of a separate brushstroke in painting, impressionism in contemporary art emphasizes the particular shallowness and mobility of paint strokes. Here strokes are not parts of a single puzzle, they create a rhythmically dynamic structure, convey the movement of air and water flows, soft vibration of light rays, humidity and depth of air, etc.
The classical representatives of the art of impressionism – Claude Monet and Edouard Manet tried to convey in painting the impression of what they saw, and not copy reality as it is. Modern impressionists, having picked up this idea, convey in painting the transience of time, the dynamism of life, the lightness and elusiveness of the states of nature.
5) Decorative Painting.
This is a kind of flat painting technique, in which color spots are applied to the canvas with small tints, outlined, emphasized, and the image itself loses its volume. At the same time, this painting technique allows you to create beautiful, bright in color and very expressive works of art. And some conventionality and demonstrative laconicism of such pictures makes them easy to perceive and create a wonderful color spot in a boring interior. Today, decorativeism in painting is undergoing a new round of development, and the technique of decorative painting is being enriched with modern materials and technical aids – mother-of-pearl and fluorescent acrylic paints, texture pastes, glossy and matte varnishes, silicone gels – all this endows laconic flat paints with extraordinary effects, creates additional textures in painting.
6) Additional Textures In Painting.
In addition to traditional writing with brushes (rough textured and soft), artists often use a variety of techniques for working with paint with a palette knife. The palette knife helps to create an additional relief in the picture, to mix paints directly on the canvas to obtain unusual color-optical and textured effects, to change the direction of the paint movement, which will also give a special technicality to the painting. A palette knife is drawn flat, applying large and voluminous thick strokes, with an edge when thin straight lines are drawn, with a tip when applying paint with the very tip of a metal spatula.
Sometimes artists use the collage technique in painting, gluing napkins, reproductions, pieces of fabric, foil, gold leaf, etc. into the canvas. Often, craftsmen simply apply pieces of crumpled newspaper or rough textured fabric (burlap, guipure, mesh) to a fresh paint layer – they create spectacular prints on a smooth surface and make it possible to rub a contrasting shade of paint into the resulting recesses, after the previous layer has dried.